S. The issue of stem cells has led to controversy because embryos are generally used and they have to be destroyed for the cells to be used. However, a number of researchers believe that stem cells will eventually change the face of medicine as we know it. Given the fact that the cells can be manipulated to mimic other types of cells, this can provide new ways to treat diseases like cancer and Alzheimer’s.

Cloning also offers hope to persons needing organ transplants. People requiring organ transplants to survive Ian illness often wait years for a suitable donor. In many cases these patients die waiting, as there are long lists of people requiring organs. Theoretically, cloning could eliminate this by producing more animals that can act as suitable donors. Pig livers have been successfully transplanted to human beings, as an interim measure until a human liver is found. Additionally, cloning of these animals not put a burden on the world’s food supply.

Cloning offers couples dealing with fertility the chance to have a child of their own. Many infertile couples can’t be helped by the techniques currently available. In fact, although some states have already banned human cloning because of ethical issues, more couples struggling to have children are starting to consider the possibilities that cloning offer.

Cloning could provide a means of cultivating plants that are stronger and more resistant to diseases, while producing more. The same could happen to livestock as well where diseases such as foot and mouth disease could be eradicated.Cloning could therefore effectively solve the world’s food problem and minimize or possible eradicate starvation.

Reconstructive and cosmetic surgery could be improved with the help of cloning. Up to today cosmetic surgery can be risky because the used materials are foreign to the body. Silicone breast implants may cause immune disease, for example. Doctors would have the ability to manufacture bone, fat and connective tissue that matches the patient′s tissues exactly. Every person could change his appearance risk less.

Seen from the couples point of view using cloning in order to have children is a brilliant idea but what about the ethical views? Cloning children will probably lead to the designer baby since the fertilized egg cell ( which is to be an embryo soon ) could also be enhanced with extra genes for special traits such as musical or athletic talent.

Furthermore the egg cell could be tested for special hereditary diseases. If they don′t exist, the egg cell can be implanted into the woman′s womb, otherwise it will be annihilated. This technique is called pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (pgd).

Maybe the parents want only a boy or a girl. scientists separate the sperm cells and choose the sex of the planned child.

There are several critical points that have to be considered when talking about those embryo selecting techniques13:

One of the main advantages of cloning is for it infertile couples to be able to reproduce, but there are other methods and in the worst of the cases they could adopt a child since the worlds is already overpopulated. These children would be genetically modified to fit what the parents want so it would appeal to many others. In the long run humans naturally born would be considered inferior since the genes of the clones can be manipulated converting the birth of a new child in a race of who can produce the best one by society's standards. Another main appeal of cloning is that stem cells of cloned embryos could be helpful to cure many diseases. What has to be considered is that these embryos are a baby in the earliest stages of growth. By extracting the stem cells of these embryos one is killing a potential life.Though other benefits could be beneficial to society, like producing more food there would have to be tests conducted to be positive that these products will not have any undesired effects. Cloning may have some advantages but the results are uncertain and the negative implications affecting the natural birth and health of humans by far surpass the advantages that cloning may have.

Cloning Disadvantagesclonedsheep.jpg

Human can live on the Earth relies on the diversity of genes. And the diversity of genes comes from parents having different sets of genes. The most horrendous part of identical genes is that it will weaken our power and adaptations, which make us subjected to great diseases easily. In addition, human cloning is just copying the identical genes, which means it will decrease the diversity of genes.

Furthermore, the beauty of humanity lies in the differences we see in each other. Cloning would eliminate surprise and predict expectancy.

As mentioned above, in human cloning, all human beings will be identical. Which means that entire human is at a risk of getting infected by the same type of pathogen. In scientific point of view, if every one has the same type of genes and they are closed to each other they may not defend against the same kind of serious disease. Then cloning will be detrimental in terms of a great disaster.

Another negative effect of cloning is inbreeding, as everyone has the same genotype and keep reproducing among themselves. This would lead us to our own extinction finally.

Richard Nicholson of the British Bulletin of Medical Ethics said that cloning research may well be “sowing the seeds of our own destruction.”

Devastate parenting and family life

The basic concept of a family is a couple falls in love and determines to care each other. Then the couple may decide to have children which they will love them dearly. But parents of clones might value their children according to how much they look like to themselves.

Cause unbalance to the society

Cloning may arouse social side effects. It is ridiculous that reproduction is separated from love and other human relationship. The entire world may use cloning for eugenics that would lead to efforts to selectively breed children who are of more intelligent, heavier and extraordinary.I